Econ Interview Questions: Tips and Examples for Success

Preparing for an economics interview can be a daunting task. With so many potential questions and topics to cover, it’s important to be well-prepared and confident in your knowledge. In this article, we will provide you with a comprehensive list of common econ interview questions, along with tips on how to answer them effectively. Whether you’re a recent graduate or an experienced professional, this guide will help you navigate the interview process and increase your chances of success.

Understanding the Basics of an Econ Interview

Before diving into the specific questions, it’s important to have a solid understanding of what to expect during an econ interview. Typically, an economics interview will consist of a combination of technical questions, behavioral questions, and case studies. The purpose of these interviews is to assess your analytical skills, problem-solving abilities, and your understanding of economic concepts and theories.

Technical questions may involve topics such as microeconomics, macroeconomics, econometrics, and mathematical modeling. Behavioral questions, on the other hand, aim to evaluate your interpersonal skills, teamwork abilities, and your fit within the organization. Finally, case studies are often used to assess your ability to apply economic principles to real-world scenarios.

15 Common Interview Questions for Econ

1. Can you explain the concept of supply and demand?

Supply and demand is a fundamental concept in economics. It refers to the relationship between the quantity of a product or service that producers are willing to supply and the quantity that consumers are willing to purchase at a given price. The law of supply states that as the price of a product increases, the quantity supplied also increases, while the law of demand states that as the price of a product increases, the quantity demanded decreases.

2. What is the difference between microeconomics and macroeconomics?

Microeconomics focuses on individual economic agents, such as households, firms, and markets, and how they make decisions regarding the allocation of resources. On the other hand, macroeconomics deals with the overall behavior of the economy, including factors such as inflation, unemployment, and economic growth.

3. How does monetary policy affect the economy?

Monetary policy refers to the actions taken by a central bank to manage the money supply and interest rates in an economy. By adjusting interest rates, a central bank can influence borrowing costs, consumer spending, and investment levels. Lower interest rates, for example, can stimulate economic growth by encouraging borrowing and spending.

4. Can you explain the concept of elasticity?

Elasticity measures the responsiveness of quantity demanded or supplied to changes in price or income. Price elasticity of demand measures how much the quantity demanded changes in response to a change in price, while price elasticity of supply measures how much the quantity supplied changes in response to a change in price.

5. What are the main factors that determine economic growth?

Economic growth is influenced by various factors, including technological progress, investment in physical and human capital, natural resources, and institutional factors such as property rights and the rule of law. These factors determine the productivity and efficiency of an economy.

6. How do you analyze market competition?

Market competition can be analyzed using models such as the perfect competition model or the monopoly model. In perfect competition, there are many buyers and sellers, homogeneous products, and free entry and exit. In a monopoly, on the other hand, there is only one seller and significant barriers to entry.

7. What are the different types of market structures?

Market structures can be classified into four main types: perfect competition, monopoly, oligopoly, and monopolistic competition. Each type has different characteristics and implications for market behavior and outcomes.

8. How does fiscal policy affect the economy?

Fiscal policy refers to the use of government spending and taxation to influence the economy. Expansionary fiscal policy involves increasing government spending and/or reducing taxes to stimulate economic activity, while contractionary fiscal policy involves decreasing government spending and/or increasing taxes to slow down the economy.

9. Can you explain the concept of opportunity cost?

Opportunity cost refers to the value of the next best alternative foregone when making a decision. It represents the benefits that could have been gained from choosing the next best alternative. Understanding opportunity cost is essential in economic decision-making.

10. How do you measure inflation?

Inflation is measured using various price indices, such as the Consumer Price Index (CPI) or the Producer Price Index (PPI). These indices track the average change in prices of a basket of goods and services over time.

11. What are the main causes of unemployment?

Unemployment can be caused by various factors, including cyclical factors (related to fluctuations in the business cycle), structural factors (such as changes in technology or industry composition), and frictional factors (such as individuals searching for better job opportunities).

12. How do you analyze the impact of trade policies?

The impact of trade policies can be analyzed using models such as comparative advantage or the gravity model. Comparative advantage explains why countries specialize in the production of certain goods and engage in trade, while the gravity model predicts the volume of trade between countries based on factors such as distance and economic size.

13. What are the main factors that determine exchange rates?

Exchange rates are determined by various factors, including interest rates, inflation rates, economic performance, political stability, and market expectations. Changes in these factors can lead to fluctuations in exchange rates.

14. How do you assess the impact of government regulations on the economy?

The impact of government regulations on the economy can be assessed by analyzing their effects on market competition, consumer welfare, and business costs. Regulations that reduce barriers to entry and promote competition are generally considered beneficial for the economy, while excessive regulations can hinder economic growth.

15. How do you evaluate the effectiveness of monetary policy?

The effectiveness of monetary policy can be evaluated by examining its impact on key macroeconomic variables such as inflation, unemployment, and economic growth. Central banks use various indicators and models to assess the transmission mechanisms and outcomes of monetary policy actions.

Preparing for Your Econ Interview

Now that you have a better understanding of the common econ interview questions, it’s important to prepare effectively. Here are some tips to help you succeed:

  • Research the company: Familiarize yourself with the company’s mission, values, and recent developments in the industry. This will demonstrate your interest and commitment.
  • Review key economic concepts: Brush up on your knowledge of microeconomics, macroeconomics, econometrics, and other relevant topics. Be prepared to explain complex concepts in simple terms.
  • Practice problem-solving: Develop your analytical skills by practicing case studies and solving economic problems. This will help you think critically and demonstrate your ability to apply economic principles.
  • Prepare behavioral examples: Think of examples from your past experiences that highlight your teamwork, leadership, and problem-solving abilities. Be ready to discuss how you handled challenging situations.
  • Stay updated with current affairs: Read news articles and publications related to economics and stay informed about current economic issues and trends. This will demonstrate your interest in the field.
  • Ask thoughtful questions: Prepare a list of questions to ask the interviewer. This shows your enthusiasm and engagement in the conversation.
  • Practice mock interviews: Consider doing mock interviews with a friend or mentor to simulate the interview experience and receive feedback on your performance.
  • Be confident and authentic: Remember to stay calm, be yourself, and showcase your passion for economics. Confidence and authenticity can make a lasting impression on the interviewer.


Preparing for an econ interview can be challenging, but with the right knowledge and preparation, you can increase your chances of success. By familiarizing yourself with common econ interview questions, practicing your answers, and showcasing your analytical and problem-solving skills, you’ll be well-equipped to impress your interviewers. Remember to stay confident, be yourself, and demonstrate your passion for economics. Good luck!

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